Bike pumps come in two main types - hand pumps and floor pumps. A hand pump is small and compact so you can take it with you whilst your ride. This is great for roadside/trailside maintenance. Track pumps (also known as floor pumps) are larger, sturdier and can inflate your tyres much quicker to higher pressures - with less effort. Track pumps can reach higher pressures than a hand pump for efficient use.
Bike pumps with gauges are the most useful as they let you easily check the pressure whilst you inflate your tyres.